Management of Pests and Pathogens Affecting Citrus Yield in Egypt with Special Emphasis on Nematodes

Document Type : Review Article


1 Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre,Giza,Egypt

2 Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre

3 College Life Science, Nankai Univ., Tianjin 30071, China

4 Inst.Sustainable Plant Prot., National Council Research, Bari, Italy.


Although citriculture ranks high in Egypt as a superior orange producer and exporter country, citrus yield should be further optimized viamanagement of pests and pathogens that adversely affect citrus orchards. We throw light on the various groups of these citrus-damaging organisms to alarm for the significance of adopting adequate programs for their control. As many plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) species in Egypt and abroad; all but one, the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans, of which are of limited distribution, this species was addressed herein in details. The citrus nematode could significantly reduce lemon yield. Before nematicidal application, growers and stakeholders should adopt strict quarantine and seedling certification programs, consider the limiting factor principle, and use appropriate nematode sampling and extraction methods. Moreover, bionematicides should be earnestly tried among other PPN management options in order to avoid human health hazards and attain pollution-free environment. Yet, holistic management should include not only nematodes but also other pests and pathogens of citrus in Egypt. We highlighted general production practices that should adequately tackle relevant citrus problems.