Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Integrated Pest Management and New Vistas

Document Type : Review Article


1 Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt;

2 College Life Science, Nankai Univ., Tianjin 30071, China.

3 Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Despite the current use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) commercially, there are still new prospects for expanding their applications to occupy a prominent market position. Scientists, extension specialists and stakeholders need to identify and widely disseminate conditions under which EPN application can offer a cost-effective, value-added approach to integrated pest management. Moreover, EPN use should not be limited to plant pests. There are other pests that EPNs can effectively and safely control such as those that significantly affect health and production of farm animals and honey bees. Examples of such pests against which nematodes can be reliably applied and general precautions to be taken to optimize EPN operation are given. The wide host range of EPN and their mutualistic bacteria against arthropods and pathogens are promising for advantageous industrial products for boosting pest/disease management. Therefore, a full useful spectrum of the EPN-bacterium complex or the symbiotic bacterium individually should be harnessed for useful usage in current and emerging agricultural systems. Fitting symbiont-obtained insecticidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, pharmaceutical, fungicidal, antimicrobial, and toxic compounds into current or emerging strategies, for controlling many pests/pathogens should be earnestly sought.